Frederick Irving Herzberg (April 18, 1923 – January 19, 2000 is an American psychologist who conributed to management theory in business management. He is most famous for introducing the concept of job enrichment and the Motivator-Hygiene theory. His 1968 publication "One More Time, How Do You Motivate Employees?" had sold 1.2 million reprints by 1987 and was the most requested article from the Harvard Business Review. This article explain how to do job enrichment. It describes horizontal loading and vertical loading of jobs.
He graduated from the City College of New York in 1946. He then joined University of Pittsburgh and took a master's degree in science and public health. His Ph.D. research focused on electric shock therapy.
Herzberg worked at the University of Utah, until he retirement. Prior to the move to Utah, Herzberg was professor of management at Case Western Reserve University where he established the Department of Industrial Mental Health.
In his lifetime, Herzberg had consulted for many organisations as well as for the United States and other foreign governments.
According to the motivator-hygiene theory ( two-factor theory, of job satisfaction) hygiene factors will not motivate, but if they are not there, they can lower motivation.
Motivational factors are responsible for increasing motivation if they are present in the job situation. These factors include job recognition, potential for promotion and satisfaction derived from the work itself.